Stroke & TIA Treatment at Tenet Health

What Causes a Stroke?

A stroke is an interruption of blood flow to the brain. Deprived of oxygen, brain cells in the affected part of the brain begin to die. A stroke causes both immediate effects and long-term damage to the brain.

Ischemic strokes, caused by blood clots, make up more than three-quarters of all strokes. Hemorrhagic strokes are caused by broken blood vessels, where blood wells up in the vessels and damages surrounding brain cells.

While no one can predict when a stroke will happen, there are known risk factors. Older age, gender (women are at higher risk) female sex and family history are a few factors that can’t be controlled or managed. Other risk factors are things that can change, or manage:

  • Lifestyle factors, including diets high in cholesterol and salt, excessive alcohol consumption, inactivity, overeating and smoking
  • Medical conditions, including diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, previous strokes or transient ischemic attacks and sickle cell disease

What Are the Symptoms of Stroke?

When someone has a stroke, symptoms may include:

  • Acute headache
  • Balance problems, dizziness or falling
  • Confusion
  • Numbness or difficulty moving one side of the body
  • Slurred speech
  • Vision problems

A quick stroke test is known as the F.A.S.T. test.

  • FACE: Does their face droop on one side?
  • ARM: Does one arm drift down when they hold their arms up?
  • SPEECH: Is their speech difficult to understand?
  • TIME: Call 911 quickly, because time is of essence in getting treatment.

How Does a TIA Differ from a Stroke?

A TIA, or transient ischemic attack, is like a brief stroke. For a few minutes, blood doesn’t reach part of the brain. The risk factors and symptoms of TIA resemble those of a stroke, and some people who have TIAs go on to have a full-blown stroke. Since it can’t be determined whether someone is having a TIA or a stroke if they show symptoms, it’s important to always call 911 at the moment symptoms appear.

Diagnosing a Stroke and TIA

A doctor may order tests to confirm a stroke or TIA. These tests may include:

  • Blood work
  • Carotid ultrasound
  • Cerebral angiography
  • CT
  • Electrocardiogram

Stroke Treatments at Tenet Health

If treated promptly, many strokes can be halted by a tissue plasminogen activator, or tPA, a drug which dissolves clots. If that approach is not possible, a stroke specialist can perform a mechanical thrombectomy to thread a catheter into the blocked artery and remove the clot. For hemorrhagic stroke, doctors will attempt to control the bleeding and reinforce the damaged vessel.

Long-term treatment for stroke may include anticoagulant medicine to limit future clots, treatment for conditions — such as high blood pressure — that led to the stroke and rehabilitation to help patients regain capabilities lost during the stroke.

 

Sources:

cdc.gov/stroke/family_history.htm; cdc.gov/stroke/behavior.htm

cdc.gov/stroke/conditions.htm

cdc.gov/stroke/types_of_stroke.htm

cdc.gov/stroke/signs_symptoms.htm

ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/All-Disorders/Transient-Ischemic-Attack-Information-Page#:~:text=A%20transient%20ischemic%20attack%20(TIA,do%20not%20last%20as%20long

radiologyinfo.org/en/info.cfm?pg=stroke#:~:text=Because%20treatment%20depends%20on%20the,ultrasound%2C%20echocardiography%20or%20cerebral%20angiography

stroke.org/en/about-stroke/treatment/ischemic-stroke-treatment

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